Resourceful archive of medical procedures

Liver Cancer

Liver cancer refers to malignant tumors originating from liver cells occupying the majority of liver and it also refers to hepatocellular carinomas occurred in liver cells because epatocellular carcinomas is the most common of liver cancer, in other words, malignant cells originated from the stem cells consisting of the liver has proliferated infinitely, and it refers to the disease of losing life by spreading outside liver and the whole of liver as time goes on.

Cause and Provoking Factors of Liver Cancer

Carriers of hepatitis B, carriers of c hepatitis, cirrhosis, patients with chronic epilepsy, alcoholic liver disease, fatty liver disease related o obesity or diabetes and in addition, other causes such as hemochromatosis, male sex hormones or birth control pills, aflatoxin (aflatoxin, a carcinogenic toxin) and etc.

Symptoms of Liver Cancer

Clinical symptoms of liver cancer is rare initially and it is developing slowly and then the symptoms appear later to some extent called the internal organ of silence generally. Therefore, if distinct symptoms are apparent, most cases is the cancer stage which already proceeded.

  • Ruq mass and pain
  • Fatigue, weakness
  • Weight loss and anorexia
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Jaundice

Diagnosis of Liver Cancer

  • 1) Abdominal ultrasound
  • 2) Abdominal CT
  • 3) Liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • 4) Proton emission tomography (PET)
  • 5) Hepatic artery angiography
  • 6) Biopsy of liver cancer markers such as alpha-fetoprotein, PIVKA-Ⅱ, Hepa-Check and etc.
  • 7) Liver biopsy

Treatment of Liver Cancer

Radiation Therapy

It is performed for the patients that surgical excision is impossible or patients with non-curative treatment such as topical therapeutics, chemoembolization and etc.

Systemic Chemotherapy

It is performed repeatedly according to constant cycle by using in combination with one or more than two medications as a medication theraphy which can destruct cancer cells for the treatment in case that it is continuously proceeded despite other treatments and the lungs or bone metastasis which is the body parts in addition to lymph node metastasis, liver.

Hormone Therapy

Inhibitor of estrogen hormone is mainly administrated and It is selectively performed in the patients with advanced liver cancer in poor liver function.

Topical Therapeutics

① Percutaneous ethanol injection
: It is widely the most common used topical thrapeutics as a mehtod to inject directly alcohol inside liver cancer pierced into liver and skin using needle.
② Radiofrequency ablation therapy
: Heat occurs if high frequency passes here after inserting the electrode through a needle a placed inside liver cancer and it is a method of destructing liver cancer tissue by this heat.
③ Homium therapy
: Radioactivity is coming out of here after inserting Homium which is a kind of isotope inside liver cancer through needle and it is a treatment of destructing liver cancer by this radioactivity.

Trans-arterial Chemoembolization

It is performed in case that topical therapeutics cannot be considered a priori because there are numbers of liver cancer and therapy to make the necrosis of tumor by blocking blood flow supplying to the tumor after injecting anti-cancer medicine and embolic material (materials blocking the blood flow to the tumor mass by preventing blood vessels) inside the tube by inserting small tube into the hepatic veins through the inguinal.


It is a treatment considering a priori in case of being judged that liver function is sufficient because there is no cirrhosis or the degree is not serious knowing that the resection of cancer is possible

Liver transplantation

It is theoretically the ideal treatment as a surgery of transplantation of the healthy liver after the patients with end state liver disease have been donated from a alive or brain dead

KMH Recommended Tips

  • If we discover the patients with chronic liver disease, they’re supposed to have a blood and ultrasound tests regularly for the early detection of liver cancer.
  • Small and frequent meals help to lower the burden on the liver.
  • Regularly balanced meals are needed in order not to lose weight but individual management is needed because the method of nutrition management can be different depending on the current state of nutrition, liver function, complicating diseases and the treatment method of liver cancer.
  • In case of chemotherapy and radiation therapy patients, the symptoms of hair loss appear and it has to be protected by cap or scarp because hair exposed is a very sensitive.
  • Alcohol is limited and no smoking.
  • Not excessive light exercise will help to recover after the treatment.
  • There might be having a variety of ups and downs in emotion of cancer patients ranging from the stage of cancer diagnosis, treatment and treatment side effects. Knowing related information to get professional help as needed for the management of emotional change and mental stress.
  • Examination of body state all the time by visiting hospital regularly and being fully aware Notice related to materials in addition to this.

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